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Nicotine is not so terrible, it's good enough to quit smoking

August 17,2020.

Speaking of cigarettes, the first thought may be nicotine, one of its constituents. Moreover, some people equated nicotine with tobacco  arguing that "smoking is harmful to health" because of nicotine in cigarettes"Nicotine is highly toxic"? ? ? "Nicotine in a pack of cigarettes can kill a cow"? ? ? "Alert to choose vegetables containing nicotine"...? ? ? All kinds of opinions are different.

But in fact, these claims are different from science. Nicotine is an alkaloid naturally produced by some Solanaceae plants. Solanaceae plants include not only tobacco, but also peppers, tomatoes, potatoes, eggplant or petunia. Tobacco is one of the plants richest in nicotine. Currently, nicotine is also used in smokeless tobacco, electronic cigarettes, and nicotine replacement therapy .

Can nicotine cause cancer? When people smoke, at least 69 chemical carcinogens contained in tobacco, such as benzopyrene, cause harm to the body after entering the human body. These carcinogens do not include nicotine. Nicotine is only the main addictive component of tobacco. The 2014 US Director of Health report pointed out that there is currently no evidence that nicotine is carcinogenic. The US FDA also clearly announced in 2017 that nicotine itself has no direct causal relationship with cancer.

Current clinical research related to nicotine supports that nicotine does not cause cancer in humans.

Does smoking cause nicotine poisoning? When people smoke, nicotine is also inhaled at the same time. The inhaled nicotine is transmitted through the blood and passes through the blood-brain barrier. It takes only 10 seconds to reach the brain on average, prompting the brain to produce pleasant and exciting dopamine and other Neurotransmitters. Objectively speaking, nicotine does have addiction and dependence. Tobacco addiction is indeed caused by nicotine to a large extent. The toxicity of nicotine actually depends on many aspects, including dosage, duration, frequency, route of exposure, type of nicotine products and individual differences. The dose of nicotine taken by smoking is relatively safe for the human body, and it is difficult to achieve the dose required to produce acute toxic effects, and the half-life of nicotine in the body is very short, only 2 to 3 hours, which makes the inhaled nicotine in a short time It will be metabolized.

Is nicotine harmful to the fetus? Nicotine easily crosses the placental barrier. The concentration of nicotine in fetal blood (30 minutes after exposure) is 15% higher than maternal plasma, and the concentration of nicotine in amniotic fluid is 80% higher than maternal plasma. This exposure will cause a high fetal brain The level of nicotine, which causes a series of changes in the nervous system.

The 2014 US "Director of Health Report" pointed out that there is currently sufficient evidence that nicotine exposure can have adverse effects on fetal health, such as premature birth or stillbirth. Several studies have shown that nicotine has certain effects on congenital malformations of the fetus, fetal growth restriction, perinatal death and sudden infant death syndrome. Prenatal nicotine exposure can cause abnormal development of the fetal lung, increasing the risk of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Parent nicotine exposure can enhance the level of nicotine addiction of the offspring and affect the behavior of offspring.

Can I eat vegetables containing nicotine? Some members of the public are concerned that the consumption of nicotine-containing vegetables may affect the body. In fact, there is no need to worry. On the one hand, the nicotine content in these vegetables is extremely low, most of which is 3~100μg/kg. So little nicotine content is completely negligible. No matter whether it is raw or cooked, it will not affect the human body.

On the other hand, oral nicotine is difficult to absorb from the stomach, because the acidic environment of the stomach will make more nicotine in the ionized state, which is not easy to be absorbed by the mucosal epithelium. Even if nicotine is absorbed into the bloodstream from the gastrointestinal tract, it will return to the liver through the portal vein for metabolism, which results in lower plasma levels of nicotine after entering the body and a significant reduction in nicotine bioavailability. Therefore, the public does not have to talk about the color change of nicotine in vegetables, and there is absolutely no need to worry about its threat to health.

Is nicotine replacement therapy safe? Nicotine replacement therapy is a non-tobacco form of low-dose nicotine preparation that replaces nicotine obtained from tobacco and helps smokers overcome their physical and psychological dependence on tobacco. It has been used as early as the late 1980s Yu quit smoking. Many people worry about whether nicotine replacement therapy can be sure.

Alkaline replacement therapy as a first-line clinical smoking cessation drug has more than doubled the success rate of smoking cessation.

The safety of nicotine replacement therapy has been confirmed, and it has been added to the World Health Organization’s Essential Drugs List, and has been recognized and recommended by the World Health Organization. Quit smoking can be used with confidence.

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